Turkmenistan is located in Central Asia. Although a landlocked country, Turkmenistan is one of the countries that face the Caspian Sea, and its geographical position has provided it with a lively history. The territory of today's Turkmenistan was a crossroads for many great civilizations, for the conquering armies, and the migration of ancient peoples. Once one of the republics of the Soviet Union, this country gained independence at the end of 1991. Turkmenistan is the 4th richest country in natural gas reserves and top ranking in corruption. Also, it has a history of electing controversial presidents. The process of obtaining a visa for Turkmenistan is quite expensive, but few visitors claim it pays off.